HFC 的逐步淘汰(含氟气体法规)

  • 欧盟F-gas法规于 2015 年 1 月 1 日生效.此法规预示着将通过高 GWP 制冷剂相关的系统限制和行业禁令在 2015-2030 年淘汰 HFC 制冷剂。尤其是 R404A/R507 制冷剂,很可能被商用系统完全淘汰。

    由于法规刚刚开始实施,因此仍具有许多不确定性。丹佛斯密切关注当前形势,我们和其他专家一样希望使用天然制冷剂和其他低 GWP 制冷剂作为新型中间解决方案,例如 407A/F 代替 R404A;虽然这些解决方案是暂时的,但它们仍适用于未来数年。我们仍希望找到新的混合工质可以采用,但目前尚未出现。

    但肯定的是,由于制冷和空调行业限量号召的变化,传统 HFC 制冷剂的数量越来越少且价格越来越高。

    此淘汰过程将通过一个限量分配系统进行控制,该系统将减少 HFC 供应,从而导致价格上涨。2018 很可能是供需平衡的关键年。

     

  • HFC phase down (F-gas regulation)
  • 全新欧盟F-gas法规同样包含使用禁令,针对采用 GWP>2500 (404A/507) 制冷剂的检修设备:
    - 豁免,充注低于 40 吨二氧化碳(同等)(R404A 10,2kg)
    - 豁免,温度低于 -50˚C
    - 豁免,军用设备

     

  • HFC Phase Down (F-gas Regulation)
  • 从 2020 年开始,只有 GWP > 2500 的回收的制冷剂可以使用。从 2030 年开始,不允许使用。

    这意味着,超市中采用 R404A 的分散式制冷系统在 2020 年后可以使用回收的 R404A,或转换为全新即插即用式混合物,例如 R407A&F。

    预充注设备将仍允许使用。但是,从 2017 年开始,限制系统将仍允许采用进口到欧盟的预充注设备。进口方必须声明遵守一致性声明,该声明必须每年由第三方进行审核。非全封闭密封设备出售给最终用户时,必须提供由认证公司进行安装的证明。

    全封闭密封系统的定义必须与现行F-gas法规一致。可以使用带阀阀帽的阀门,例如具备调节功能的检修阀、球阀或热力膨胀阀。

     

  • 泄漏测试频率、记录保存和报告

    泄漏测试频率:

    二氧化碳同等

    年份

    R-134a

    R-407C

    R-410A

    R-404A

    GWP:1430

    GWP:1770

    GWP:2090

    GWP:3920

    非全封闭密封设备:

    每 12 个月(每 24 个月, 如果安装了泄漏探测系统)

    ≥5t

    2015

    3,5 kg

    3,0 kg

    3,0 kg

    3,0 kg

    2017

    3,5 kg

    2,8 kg

    2,4 kg

    1,3 kg

    全封闭密封设备:

    每 12 个月。(每 24 个月, 如果安装了泄漏探测系统)

    ≥10t

    2015

    7,0 kg

    6,0 kg

    6,0 kg

    6,0 kg

    2017

    7,0 kg

    5,7 kg

    4,8 kg

    2,6 kg

    全部系统

    每 6 个月。(每 12 个月, 如果安装了泄漏探测系统)

    ≥50t

    2015

    35 kg

    28 kg

    24 kg

    13 kg

    全部系统

    实际上,每 6 个月, 根据气体泄漏探测系统。(从 2017 年,有机朗肯循环) 否则,每 3 个月。

    ≥500t

    2015

    350 kg

    282 kg

    239 kg

    128 kg

     

  • 培训和证书

    安装、检修、泄漏检查和调试人员必须具备证书。已有证书仍继续生效,公司将任务授权给其他公司必须采取可行措施确保任务交付给具备证书的工作人员。某个国家颁发的证书将在其他国家生效。

     

  • 保留记录

    系统操作员和检修公司必须记录添加或清除制冷剂和泄漏相关的设备检修工作。

    关于记录的新规:
    - 双方必须保存记录 5 年。
    - 在某些国家,记录必须上报国家数据库进行保存。
    - 在其他国家,系统记录日志和检修人员似乎不足。

    公司出售或购买 HFC 制冷剂也需要依照类似记录规定。

     

  • 报告

    如果氟化气体的进口、出口或生产数量等同于 100 吨/年二氧化碳或 1 公吨以上,必须报告委员会。

    如果向市场提供产品数量等同于 500 吨/年二氧化碳以上,也必须报告委员会。相当于:
    - 349.65 kg 的 R134a,或
    - 282.49 kg 的 R407C,或
    - 239.23 kg 的 R410A,或
    - 127.55 kg 的 R404A。

    进口方必须提供 HFC 副产品 R23 已经销毁的证明。

     

  • 标签

    从 2017 年开始,制冷、空调、热泵和有机朗肯循环设备必须标注:
    - 设备包含或采用 HFC 的信息
    - 制冷剂类型
    - 制冷剂数量,同等重量和二氧化碳
    - 制冷剂 GWP
    如果设备采用全封闭密封,也必须说明。
    还需包含说明手册和广告介绍信息。HFC 容器必须标注,同时说明 HFC 是否回收、销毁、用于军事用途、或直接出口。

     

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